Background: There has been conflicting evidence for the association between antenatal factors and the development of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) or failure of pharmacologic treatment, especially for maternal pregnancy–induced hypertension (PIH) or chorioamnionitis. We assessed the perinatal risk factors of symptomatic PDA in preterm infants and those of secondary ligation in infants with pharmacologic treatment for symptomatic PDA using a national cohort. Methods: A total of 2961 infants with 22–29 weeks of gestation with symptomatic PDA or no PDA were included from the Korean Neonatal Network database. To identify significant perinatal risk factors associated with symptomatic PDA or secondary ligation, all perinatal factors were included in the univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equation analysis and final model was selected using backward elimination method based on Quasi-likelihood Information Criterion. Results: Lower gestational age (GA), female gender, maternal PIH and surfactant use were significant risk factors of symptomatic PDA. Antenatal corticosteroid use decreased the risk of symptomatic PDA. For secondary ligation, lower GA and cesarean section were significant risk factors. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of PIH as a risk factor of symptomatic PDA was 1.56 [95% confidence interval 1.17–2.08]. In the subgroup analysis according to the GA, lower GA, female gender, multiple pregnancy, maternal PIH and surfactant use increased the risk of symptomatic PDA, and histologic chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroid use decreased the risk of symptomatic PDA only in GA 26–29 weeks group. Conclusion: Lower GA increased the risk of symptomatic PDA and secondary ligation. Maternal PIH and surfactant use increased the risk of symptomatic PDA; however, antenatal corticosteroid use decreased it. Close observation of the clinical symptoms of PDA is needed in preterm infants with maternal PIH.
- patent ductus arteriosus
- premature infant
- risk factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health