Permanent Magnet Temperature Estimation in PM Synchronous Motors Using Low-Cost Hall Effect Sensors

Daniel Fernandez, Doosoo Hyun, Yonghyun Park, David Diaz Reigosa, Sang Bin Lee, Dong Myung Lee, Fernando Briz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Knowledge of the permanent magnet (PM) temperature in PM synchronous machines (PMSMs) is of great importance both for control and monitoring purposes. Increase in PM temperature during motor operation can degrade the magnetic flux strength and consequently the machine's torque production capability, and can also cause irreversible demagnetization of the PM. Direct measurement of the PM temperature is not viable in practice due to both cost and reliability issues. Indirect PM temperature estimation methods recently studied require knowledge of thermal or electrical model parameters or can have undesired effects on motor operation. In this paper, the feasibility of using low-cost Hall-effect sensors for PM temperature estimation is investigated. Hall sensors are present for detecting the initial position of the rotor in majority of PMSM applications for which incremental encoders are used for control. The proposed method can, therefore, be implemented with low or no additional cost. Experimental results on two interior PMSMs show that the method is capable of providing noninvasive estimation of the PM temperature without a priori motor parameter information for monitoring and protection against excessive increase in temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7931712
Pages (from-to)4515-4525
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Sep 1


  • Demagnetization
  • Hall-effect sensor
  • PM synchronous motor
  • permanent magnet (PM)
  • thermal monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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