Photo-Transformable Gratings for Augmented Reality

Yongjun Lim, Byungsoo Kang, Seungwoo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The seamless integration of multiple diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into a single-level substrate has been the key for the advancements in augmented reality (AR) technologies. Presently, serial-type lithographic manipulations such as electron-beam lithography can successfully provide a deterministic route toward this end. The large-scale utilization of these processes, however, is impractical owing to their high cost. The holographic inscription of photochromic materials can offer an etching-free and wide-scale strategy for the cost-effective development of large-area 1D DOEs. Given the processing time, the accessible DOE area from this holographic inscription is more than several orders of magnitude larger (108–1010 µm2 h−1) than that obtained through the aforementioned lithography (102–105 µm2 h−1). However, erasing, which is believed to be prevalent in the multiscale integration of various DOEs, deteriorates the pattern integrity and throughput. Here, it is proposed that the technical conundrum resulting from erasing and re-inscribing the DOEs can be effectively circumvented by transforming the already formed DOEs without erasing. Centimeter-scale mosaic DOEs can be readily developed within an hour, which in turn facilitate advanced AR demonstrations. This approach leverages the ability of holographic inscription to seamlessly integrate the wide-scale multiple DOEs as well as their utility as a go-to tool for AR technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2100839
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number28
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul 9


  • augmented reality
  • diffractive optical elements
  • holographic fabrications
  • mass migration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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