Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending

Kuk Hee Lee, Yun Jae Kim, Chi Yong Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)


This paper provides plastic limit and TES (twice-elastic-slope) plastic load solutions for 90° pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending, via three-dimensional non-linear FE analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Without internal pressure, a closed-form approximation is given. For combined pressure and out-of-plane bending, tabulated data are given, from which TES plastic loads can be interpolated. It is found that TES plastic loads for pipe bends under out-of-plane bending are lower than those under in-plane opening bending, but are higher than those under in-plane closing bending. It suggests that the in-plane closing bending mode is the most critical loading mode for 90° pipe bends, which is fully consistent to existing findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-45
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Fracture
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jan 1



  • Combined pressure and out-of-plane bending
  • Finite element limit analysis
  • Pipe Bend
  • Twice-elastic-slope plastic load

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mechanics
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Mechanics of Materials

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