Pool boiling enhancement using hierarchically structured ZnO nanowires grown via electrospraying and chemical bath deposition

Chanwoo Park, Taegun Kim, Yong Il Kim, Ali Aldalbahi, Mohammad Rafe Hatshan, Segonpil An, Sam S. Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


This study entailed the fabrication of hierarchically structured ZnO nanowires via electrospraying and chemical bath deposition for pool boiling applications. Nanoscale ZnO seeds were patterned on a metal substrate by electrospraying, after which the seeds were grown into ZnO nanowires via chemical bath deposition. Next, the effect of the patterned ZnO nanowires on the pool boiling performance was investigated. In addition, the optimal nanowire pattern that yielded the highest critical heat flux (CHF) and effective heat transfer coefficient (heff) was identified. The numerous nanoscale cavities that existed among the ZnO nanowires acted as nucleation sites, thereby facilitating an efficient boiling process. The hierarchical structure of the ZnO nanowires increased the CHF by 40% compared with that of the non-coated, bare surface. Furthermore, the cooling effect increased owing to the ZnO nanowires; this in turn decreased the superheat and increased heff. In addition, the ZnO nanowires exhibited surface wettability owing to their hierarchical structure. The optimal combination of a bare and hydrophobic surface and a hydrophilic surface covered with ZnO nanowires yielded the highest CHF and heff. Moreover, the hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces promoted capillary pressure and rapid bubble departure, respectively, and their combination yielded the optimal pool boiling condition. Bubble formation and dynamics were observed using a CCD camera, and the patterned ZnO nanowires were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and optical microscopy. Moreover, the theoretically predicted heat transfer was found to be consistent with the experimental data.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116553
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Mar 25


  • Electrospraying
  • Heat dissipation
  • Pool boiling
  • Surface tension
  • Wettability
  • Zinc oxide nanowires

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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