Porous FeS nanofibers with numerous nanovoids obtained by Kirkendall diffusion effect for use as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

Jung Sang Cho, Jin Sung Park, Yun Chan Kang

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Abstract

Porous FeS nanofibers with numerous nanovoids for use as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries were prepared by electrospinning and subsequent sulfidation. The post-treatment of the as-spun Fe(acac)3-polyacrylonitrile composite nanofibers in an air atmosphere yielded hollow Fe2O3 nanofibers due to Ostwald ripening. The ultrafine Fe2O3 nanocrystals formed at the center of the fiber diffused toward the outside of the fiber via Ostwald ripening. On sulfidation, the Fe2O3 hollow nanofibers were transformed into porous FeS nanofibers, which contained numerous nanovoids. The formation of porosity in the FeS nanofibers was driven by nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The porous FeS nanofibers were very structurally stable and had superior sodium-ion storage properties compared with the hollow Fe2O3 nanofibers. The discharge capacities of the porous FeS nanofibers for the 1st and 150th cycles at a current density of 500 mA·g–1 were 561 and 592 mA·h·g–1, respectively. The FeS nanofibers had final discharge capacities of 456, 437, 413, 394, 380, and 353 mA·h·g–1 at current densities of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0 A·g–1, respectively. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)897-907
Number of pages11
JournalNano Research
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Mar 1

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Keywords

  • electrospinning
  • iron sulfide
  • Kirkendall effect
  • nanofibers
  • sodium-ion batteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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