Objective: To analyze whether strains positive for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) affected the clinical course and progression to chronic prostatitis in patients with postbiopsy acute prostatitis. Methods: From 2002 to 2011, 3657 patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate, and 33 patients with acute prostatitis were enrolled. Acute prostatitis was defined as a fever greater than 38°C, pyuria, and tenderness on digital rectal examination. Urine and blood cultures were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Laboratory and clinical variables according to the presence of ESBL were analyzed. Results: Blood or urine culture was positive in 23 patients. The most common strain was Escherichia coli. Sixteen patients showed ESBL-positive and 18 patients were quinolone-resistant. Thirteen of 16 patients with ESBL-positive strains showed quinolone resistance, and 13 of 18 patients with quinolone resistance were ESBL-positive (P =.621). Besides imipenem, all ESBL-positive patients were susceptible to amikacin and were highly susceptible to cefoxitin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The prevalence of ESBL-positive strains has tended to increase since 2006. Patients with ESBL had higher peak fever, white blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, and longer duration of fever and hospitalization. The progression rate to chronic prostatitis was significantly higher in ESBL-positive patients (4/16 vs 0/17, P =.044). Conclusion: Since 2006, ESBL strains have been increasing, and the presence of ESBL showed more detrimental effects on the clinical course of the patients, resulting in a higher rate of progression to chronic prostatitis.
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