Precise temperature control and rapid thermal cycling in a micromachined DNA polymerase chain reaction chip

Dae Sung Yoon, You Seop Lee, Youngsun Lee, Hye Jung Cho, Su Whan Sung, Kwang W. Oh, Junhoe Cha, Geunbae Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

117 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have fabricated Si-based micromachined DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chips with different groove depths. The platinum thin-film micro heater and the temperature sensor have been integrated on the chip. The volume of the PCR chamber in the chip is about 3.6 μl and the chip size is 17 × 40 mm2. The effects of groove geometry, including width, depth and position, on the thermal characteristics of the PCR chip have been investigated by numerical analysis and experimental measurement. From the results, the power consumption required for the PCR chip is reduced with the increase of groove depth. Compared with results for the case of no groove, the power consumption of the chip with a groove of 280 μm is reduced by 24.0%, 23.3% and 25.6% with annealing, extension and denaturation, respectively. The heating rate is increased rapidly with the increase of the groove depth. In particular, it is revealed that this effect is predominant for depths in the region above 280 μm. For a more precise control of chip temperature, the nonlinear feedback proportional-integral control scheme is used. The obtained heating and cooling rates are about 36°C s-1 and 22°C s-1, respectively. The overshoot and the steady state error are less than 0.7°C and ±0.1°C, respectively. In the experiment, the effects of the PCR buffer and the bubbles in the chamber on the temperature uniformity have also been studied. From the temperature measurement, it is revealed that the temperature difference between the thin-film sensor (on the lower plate) and the PCR buffer can be neglected if there is no air bubble in the PCR buffer. With such a high performance control scheme, we could implement a remarkable thermal cycling of conducting 30 cycles for 3 min. Finally, the chip PCR of plasmid DNA was successfully performed with no additives using the temperature control system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)813-823
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Micromechanics and Microengineering
Volume12
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Polymerase chain reaction
Thermal cycling
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
Temperature control
DNA
Buffers
Electric power utilization
Thin films
Nonlinear feedback
Denaturation
Temperature sensors
Platinum
Heating rate
Temperature measurement
Temperature
Numerical analysis
Plasmids
Annealing
Cooling
Control systems

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Precise temperature control and rapid thermal cycling in a micromachined DNA polymerase chain reaction chip. / Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, You Seop; Lee, Youngsun; Cho, Hye Jung; Sung, Su Whan; Oh, Kwang W.; Cha, Junhoe; Lim, Geunbae.

In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 12, No. 6, 01.11.2002, p. 813-823.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yoon, Dae Sung ; Lee, You Seop ; Lee, Youngsun ; Cho, Hye Jung ; Sung, Su Whan ; Oh, Kwang W. ; Cha, Junhoe ; Lim, Geunbae. / Precise temperature control and rapid thermal cycling in a micromachined DNA polymerase chain reaction chip. In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. 2002 ; Vol. 12, No. 6. pp. 813-823.
@article{3b7b69306c1b4457ada676021439683a,
title = "Precise temperature control and rapid thermal cycling in a micromachined DNA polymerase chain reaction chip",
abstract = "We have fabricated Si-based micromachined DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chips with different groove depths. The platinum thin-film micro heater and the temperature sensor have been integrated on the chip. The volume of the PCR chamber in the chip is about 3.6 μl and the chip size is 17 × 40 mm2. The effects of groove geometry, including width, depth and position, on the thermal characteristics of the PCR chip have been investigated by numerical analysis and experimental measurement. From the results, the power consumption required for the PCR chip is reduced with the increase of groove depth. Compared with results for the case of no groove, the power consumption of the chip with a groove of 280 μm is reduced by 24.0{\%}, 23.3{\%} and 25.6{\%} with annealing, extension and denaturation, respectively. The heating rate is increased rapidly with the increase of the groove depth. In particular, it is revealed that this effect is predominant for depths in the region above 280 μm. For a more precise control of chip temperature, the nonlinear feedback proportional-integral control scheme is used. The obtained heating and cooling rates are about 36°C s-1 and 22°C s-1, respectively. The overshoot and the steady state error are less than 0.7°C and ±0.1°C, respectively. In the experiment, the effects of the PCR buffer and the bubbles in the chamber on the temperature uniformity have also been studied. From the temperature measurement, it is revealed that the temperature difference between the thin-film sensor (on the lower plate) and the PCR buffer can be neglected if there is no air bubble in the PCR buffer. With such a high performance control scheme, we could implement a remarkable thermal cycling of conducting 30 cycles for 3 min. Finally, the chip PCR of plasmid DNA was successfully performed with no additives using the temperature control system.",
author = "Yoon, {Dae Sung} and Lee, {You Seop} and Youngsun Lee and Cho, {Hye Jung} and Sung, {Su Whan} and Oh, {Kwang W.} and Junhoe Cha and Geunbae Lim",
year = "2002",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1088/0960-1317/12/6/312",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "813--823",
journal = "Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering",
issn = "0960-1317",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Precise temperature control and rapid thermal cycling in a micromachined DNA polymerase chain reaction chip

AU - Yoon, Dae Sung

AU - Lee, You Seop

AU - Lee, Youngsun

AU - Cho, Hye Jung

AU - Sung, Su Whan

AU - Oh, Kwang W.

AU - Cha, Junhoe

AU - Lim, Geunbae

PY - 2002/11/1

Y1 - 2002/11/1

N2 - We have fabricated Si-based micromachined DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chips with different groove depths. The platinum thin-film micro heater and the temperature sensor have been integrated on the chip. The volume of the PCR chamber in the chip is about 3.6 μl and the chip size is 17 × 40 mm2. The effects of groove geometry, including width, depth and position, on the thermal characteristics of the PCR chip have been investigated by numerical analysis and experimental measurement. From the results, the power consumption required for the PCR chip is reduced with the increase of groove depth. Compared with results for the case of no groove, the power consumption of the chip with a groove of 280 μm is reduced by 24.0%, 23.3% and 25.6% with annealing, extension and denaturation, respectively. The heating rate is increased rapidly with the increase of the groove depth. In particular, it is revealed that this effect is predominant for depths in the region above 280 μm. For a more precise control of chip temperature, the nonlinear feedback proportional-integral control scheme is used. The obtained heating and cooling rates are about 36°C s-1 and 22°C s-1, respectively. The overshoot and the steady state error are less than 0.7°C and ±0.1°C, respectively. In the experiment, the effects of the PCR buffer and the bubbles in the chamber on the temperature uniformity have also been studied. From the temperature measurement, it is revealed that the temperature difference between the thin-film sensor (on the lower plate) and the PCR buffer can be neglected if there is no air bubble in the PCR buffer. With such a high performance control scheme, we could implement a remarkable thermal cycling of conducting 30 cycles for 3 min. Finally, the chip PCR of plasmid DNA was successfully performed with no additives using the temperature control system.

AB - We have fabricated Si-based micromachined DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chips with different groove depths. The platinum thin-film micro heater and the temperature sensor have been integrated on the chip. The volume of the PCR chamber in the chip is about 3.6 μl and the chip size is 17 × 40 mm2. The effects of groove geometry, including width, depth and position, on the thermal characteristics of the PCR chip have been investigated by numerical analysis and experimental measurement. From the results, the power consumption required for the PCR chip is reduced with the increase of groove depth. Compared with results for the case of no groove, the power consumption of the chip with a groove of 280 μm is reduced by 24.0%, 23.3% and 25.6% with annealing, extension and denaturation, respectively. The heating rate is increased rapidly with the increase of the groove depth. In particular, it is revealed that this effect is predominant for depths in the region above 280 μm. For a more precise control of chip temperature, the nonlinear feedback proportional-integral control scheme is used. The obtained heating and cooling rates are about 36°C s-1 and 22°C s-1, respectively. The overshoot and the steady state error are less than 0.7°C and ±0.1°C, respectively. In the experiment, the effects of the PCR buffer and the bubbles in the chamber on the temperature uniformity have also been studied. From the temperature measurement, it is revealed that the temperature difference between the thin-film sensor (on the lower plate) and the PCR buffer can be neglected if there is no air bubble in the PCR buffer. With such a high performance control scheme, we could implement a remarkable thermal cycling of conducting 30 cycles for 3 min. Finally, the chip PCR of plasmid DNA was successfully performed with no additives using the temperature control system.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036852980&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036852980&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0960-1317/12/6/312

DO - 10.1088/0960-1317/12/6/312

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0036852980

VL - 12

SP - 813

EP - 823

JO - Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering

JF - Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering

SN - 0960-1317

IS - 6

ER -