Prediction of Sea of Japan (East Sea) acidification over the past 40 years using a multiparameter regression model

Tae-Wook Kim, Kitack Lee, Richard A. Feely, Christopher L. Sabine, Chen Tung Arthur Chen, Hae Jin Jeong, Kwang Young Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

A multiparameter linear regression model (MLR) of aragonite saturation state (ARG) as a function of temperature, pressure and O2 concentration in the upper 1,000 m of the Sea of Japan (East Sea) was derived with an uncertainty of 0.020 (1). The ARG data (n = 1,482) used to derive the basin-wide ARG prediction model were collected during a field survey in 1999 and were corrected for anthropogenic CO2. Some biases were resolved by addition of a pressure and O2 concentration interaction term to the proposed model. Correlation between the two predictor terms, caused by addition of this term, was minimized by centering the data for the three variables (thus subtracting the mean from each individual data point). Validation of the model against data sets obtained in 1992 and 2007 yielded correlation coefficients of 0.995 0.013 for 1992 (n = 64, p $\ll$ 0.001) and 0.995 0.009 for 2007 (n = 137, p $\ll$ 0.001) and root mean square errors of 0.064 for 1992 and 0.050 for 2007. The strong correlation between measurements and predictions suggests that the model can be used to estimate the distribution of ARG in the Sea of Japan (East Sea) (including dynamic coastal waters) on varying time scales when basic hydrographic data on temperature, pressure and O2 concentration are available. Application of the model to past measurements for the Sea of Japan (East Sea) indicated that interdecadal variability (2 from the mean) in ARG corrected for anthropogenic CO2 was generally high (0.1-0.7) in the upper water layer (<200 m depth), and decreased (0.05-0.2) with depth for waters deeper than 500 m. The interdecadal variability is largely controlled by variations in the degree of water column ventilation. Superimposed on this natural variability, the input of CO2 derived from fossil fuels has markedly acidified the upper water layers during the anthropocene and thereby moved the aragonite saturation horizon upward by 50-250 m. The impact of CO2 derived from fossil fuels on upper ocean acidification will increase in the future. The present study indicates that, in combination with other easily measurable parameters, a multifunctional model can be a powerful tool for predicting the temporal evolution of ARG in the ocean, including coastal waters that are highly likely to be susceptible to ocean acidification in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberGB3005
JournalGlobal Biogeochemical Cycles
Volume24
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug 9
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Acidification
acidification
prediction
Water
Calcium Carbonate
aragonite
Fossil fuels
fossil fuel
coastal water
saturation
upper ocean
temporal evolution
sea
Linear regression
Mean square error
field survey
Ventilation
ventilation
deep water
water column

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Atmospheric Science

Cite this

Prediction of Sea of Japan (East Sea) acidification over the past 40 years using a multiparameter regression model. / Kim, Tae-Wook; Lee, Kitack; Feely, Richard A.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Chen, Chen Tung Arthur; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Kwang Young.

In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 24, No. 3, GB3005, 09.08.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, Tae-Wook ; Lee, Kitack ; Feely, Richard A. ; Sabine, Christopher L. ; Chen, Chen Tung Arthur ; Jeong, Hae Jin ; Kim, Kwang Young. / Prediction of Sea of Japan (East Sea) acidification over the past 40 years using a multiparameter regression model. In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2010 ; Vol. 24, No. 3.
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