Background: Early predictive biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) can be valuable diagnostic tools in children.
Methods: The study cohort comprised 73 pediatric patients with febrile UTIs [46 with acute pyelonephritis (APN) and 27 with lower UTIs] and 56 healthy children. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1) levels and serum cystatin C (sCysC) levels were measured.
Results: The uNGAL/creatinine (Cr) and uKIM-1/Cr levels were higher in the UTI group than in the controls (P < 0.05). uNGAL/Cr and sCysC levels were higher in patients with APN than in those with lower UTIs (P < 0.05). uNGAL/Cr levels in both the APN and UTI groups decreased following the administration of antibiotics compared to those before treatment (P < 0.05). The uNGAL/Cr level was correlated with serum levels of white blood cells, C-reactive protein, CysC and with uKIM-1/Cr (P < 0.05). uKIM-1/Cr was also correlated with sCysC (P < 0.05). Receiver operating curve analyses showed good diagnostic profiles of uNGAL/Cr and uKIM-1/Cr for identifying UTIs [area under the curve (AUC) 0.9 and 0.66, respectively) and of uNGAL/Cr and sCysC for predicting APN (AUC 0.78 and 0.72, respectively).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that uNGAL, uKIM-1 and sCysC levels may be useful for predicting and managing febrile UTIs in children.
- Acute kidney injury
- Bacterial infections
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health