Preparation of activated and non-activated carbon from Conocarpus pruning waste as low-cost adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution

Ahmed H. El-Naggar, Abdalwahab K.R. Alzhrani, Mahtab Ahmad, Adel R.A. Usman, Dinesh Mohan, Yong Sik Ok, Mohammad I. Al-Wabel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Conocarpus pruning waste, an agricultural byproduct, was converted into low-cost activated and non-activated carbons and used for the remediation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. The carbonization was carried out at 400 °C, while the activation was carried out in the presence of KOH and ZnCl2. Batch single-solute and multi-solute equilibrium and kinetic experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption capacities of the prepared activated and non-activated carbons, and these were further compared with commercially available activated carbon. The results showed that KOH-activated carbon (CK) outperformed the other activated and non-activated carbons in terms of adsorption efficiency. CK removed >50% of the applied Cd2+ and Cu2+ and 100% of Pb2+ at the initial concentration of 40 mg L-1. Interestingly, the performance of Conocarpusderived non-activated carbon was better than that of the commercial activated carbon, as observed from the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of 65.61, 66.12, and 223.05 μmol g-1 for Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+, respectively. The Pb2+ was the metal most easily removed from aqueous solution because of its large ionic radius. The kinetic dynamics were well described by the pseudo-second order and Elovich models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1092-1107
Number of pages16
JournalBioResources
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Adsorption
  • Carbonization
  • Chemical activation
  • Competitive effect
  • Kinetic dynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Waste Management and Disposal

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