Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery combines the precision of ophthalmic microsurgery with plastic and reconstructive surgical principles, allowing for subspecialized care of the eyelid, orbital, and lacrimal system. A foundation in ophthalmology allows the oculoplastic surgeon's knowledge and skills to safely and successfully protect the globe while achieving good functional and aesthetic results. Oculoplasty emerged following World War II, in which a high rate of ophthalmic and oculoplastic trauma occurred. Following this, more structured and specialized studies dedicated to clinical and surgical management led to the development of a highly specific and rapidly growing sub-specialty dedicated to eyelid, lacrimal, and orbital care. Stem cell treatments in oculoplasty has been spanned a wide array of subfields, ranging from reconstruction of the eyelid to the generation of artificial lacrimal glands and oncological therapeutics. Tissue engineering represents the future of regenerative and reconstructive medicine, with significant potential applications in ophthalmic plastic surgery. Difficulty remains in disease modeling for various disorders, owing to genetic and functional variation across patients as well as the complexity of several diseases. Progressive advances in the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of diseases such as thyroid eye disease and lacrimal gland carcinoma continue to spur clinical trials utilizing targeted therapies to enhance treatment outcomes. Continued investigation of the molecular mechanisms of disease will expand potential treatments. In the future, public awareness and interest in the field of oculoplasty will further grow, and personalized and optimized treatment will become a cornerstone of modern medicine.
- Lacrimal apparatus carcinoma
- Stem cell
- Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy
- Tissue engineering
ASJC Scopus subject areas