Osteoblast differentiation is important for the development of bone and the maintenance of bone density. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a probiotic with an anti‐inflammatory property. The aim of this study was to investigate the enhancement effect of P. freudenreichii MJ2 (MJ2) isolated from raw milk on osteoblast differentiation, mineralization, and its signaling pathway. For in vitro and in vivo experiments, human fetal osteoblastic cell line hFOB 1.19 and an ovariectomized rat model were used, respectively. Expression levels of genes and proteins related to osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were measured by real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Alizarin red S staining was performed to measure osteoblast miner-alization. Heat‐killed MJ2 (hkMJ2)‐treated cells showed significantly increased osteoblast differentiation via an increase in the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor‐κB ligand (RANKL) ratio and significantly increased osteoblast mineralization by stimulating the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and runt‐related transcription factor 2. Additionally, oral admin-istration of live or heat‐killed MJ2 to ovariectomized rats inhibited osteoporosis‐induced bone loss. Specifically, surface proteins isolated from MJ2 promoted osteoblast differentiation and minerali-zation. In conclusion, MJ2 enhanced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization through the OPG/RANKL signaling pathway and the effective component of MJ2 might be its surface proteins.
- Osteoblast mineralization
- Propionibacterium freudenreichii
- Receptor activator of nuclear factor‐κB ligand
- Surface proteins
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)