Ultrasonic agitation was applied during the chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films. Ultrasonication resulted in a dramatic difference in surface morphology, growth rate, and optical properties of CdS films. There were virtually no colloidal particles adsorbed on the surface. The surface roughness measured by atomic force microscopy was reduced by a factor of two. Band gap energy increased to 2.39 eV from 2.37 eV. X-ray patterns showed that the preferred orientation changed from hexagonal(002)/cubic(111) to hexagonal(101). Optical transmission improved in the wavelength range longer than 520 nm. The chemical reaction for CdS formation started at a lower temperature under ultrasonication, and dense films were obtained even when the chemical composition of the aqueous solution deviated far from the optimum conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)