Osteoclast differentiation is crucial for bone absorption, and osteoclasts are involved in bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Dairy Propionibacterium freudenreichii is used as a cheese starter and possesses prebiotic and postbiotic properties. It is known to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and produces valuable metabolites, such as vitamin B12 and propionic acid. However, limited information is available on the beneficial effects of P. freudenreichii on human disease. Herein, we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of P. freudenreichii MJ2 (MJ2) isolated from raw milk on osteoclast differentiation and evaluate the improvement in RA. The murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model were used to perform in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. Heat-killed P. freudenreichii MJ2 (hkMJ2)-treated cells significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and TRAP activity. HkMJ2-treated cells exhibited significantly decreased expression of genes and proteins related to RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. MJ2 administration decreased the arthritic score in the CIA mouse model. Live and dead MJ2 inhibited bone loss and afforded protection against bone erosion and joint damage in CIA mice. MJ2 decreased the levels of collagen-specific antibodies and inflammatory cytokines and the expression of osteoclast differentiation-related genes and proteins in CIA mice. Interestingly, live and dead MJ2 showed similar RA improvement effects in CIA mice. In conclusion, P. freudenreichii MJ2 inhibited osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway and ameliorated CIA.
- Collagen-induced arthritis
- Propionibacterium freudenreichii
- Rheumatoid arthritis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)