In inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis, PGE2 is highly expressed, and IL-10 and IL-6 are also abundant. PGE2 is a well-known activator of the cAMP signaling pathway, and there is functional cross-talk between cAMP signaling and the Jak-STAT signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated the modulating effect of PGE2 on STAT signaling and its biological function induced by IL-10 and IL-6, and elucidated its mechanism in THP-1 cells. STAT phosphorylation was determined by Western blot, and gene expression was analyzed using real-time PCR. Pretreatment with PGE2 significantly augmented IL-10-induced STAT3 and STAT1 phosphorylation, as well as suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and IL-1R antagonist gene expression. In contrast, PGE2 suppressed IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT1. These PGE2-induced modulating effects were largely reversed by actinomycin D. Pretreatment with dibutyryl cAMP augmented IL-10-induced, but did not change DL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Misoprostol, an EP2/3/4 agonist, and butaprost, an EP2 agonist, augmented IL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and SOCS3 gene expression, but sulprostone, an EP1/3 agonist, had no effect H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, diminished PGE2-mediated augmentation of IL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In this study, we found that PGE 2 selectively regulates cytokine signaling via increased intracellular cAMP levels and de novo gene expression, and these modulating effects may be mediated through EP2 or EP4 receptors. PGE2 may modulate immune responses by alteration of cytokine signaling in THP-1 cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy