Protective Effect of Botulinum Toxin against Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Pigmentation

Jae A. Jung, Beom Jun Kim, Min Sook Kim, Hi Jin You, Eul Sik Yoon, Eun-Sang Dhong, Seung Ha Park, Deok Woo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation following ultraviolet irradiation has cosmetic concerns. Botulinum toxin type A can favorably affect skin pigmentation. However, the mechanism of skin pigmentation is unclear. METHODS: In vitro, human epidermal melanocytes were co-cultured with human keratinocytes. After cells were treated with botulinum toxin type A, cell morphology, proliferation, and dendricity were analyzed, and immunofluorescence, tyrosinase activity, and melanin contents were determined. To evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin type A on ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin, ultraviolet B alone was applied to one side of the back of each mouse as a control, whereas ultraviolet B plus injection of botulinum toxin type A was applied to the contralateral side. Skin pigmentation, histology, and the number of dihydroxyphenylalanine-positive melanocytes were evaluated. The L* colorimeter value was measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determinations of basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1 alpha, and prostaglandin E2 were performed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining revealed botulinum toxin type A in the cytoplasm of melanocytes and in the positive control. In vitro, melanocyte dendricity and melanin contents were decreased slightly but significantly (p < 0.05) after botulinum toxin type A treatment. In vivo, botulinum toxin type A suppressed skin pigmentation. The number of dihydroxyphenylalanine-positive melanocytes was also significantly lower than in the control side. Tyrosinase activity and melanin content were also significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Botulinum toxin type A also significantly reduced the amounts of basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1 alpha, and prostaglandin E2 (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Botulinum toxin type A can suppress epidermal melanogenesis through both direct and indirect mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)347-356
Number of pages10
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
Volume144
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug 1

Fingerprint

Skin Pigmentation
Type A Botulinum Toxins
Botulinum Toxins
Melanocytes
Melanins
Fibroblast Growth Factor 1
Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Interleukin-1alpha
Monophenol Monooxygenase
Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
Dinoprostone
Hyperpigmentation
Keratinocytes
Cosmetics
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Histology
Cytoplasm
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Cell Proliferation
Staining and Labeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Protective Effect of Botulinum Toxin against Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Pigmentation. / Jung, Jae A.; Kim, Beom Jun; Kim, Min Sook; You, Hi Jin; Yoon, Eul Sik; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Park, Seung Ha; Kim, Deok Woo.

In: Plastic and reconstructive surgery, Vol. 144, No. 2, 01.08.2019, p. 347-356.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jung, Jae A. ; Kim, Beom Jun ; Kim, Min Sook ; You, Hi Jin ; Yoon, Eul Sik ; Dhong, Eun-Sang ; Park, Seung Ha ; Kim, Deok Woo. / Protective Effect of Botulinum Toxin against Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Pigmentation. In: Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2019 ; Vol. 144, No. 2. pp. 347-356.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation following ultraviolet irradiation has cosmetic concerns. Botulinum toxin type A can favorably affect skin pigmentation. However, the mechanism of skin pigmentation is unclear. METHODS: In vitro, human epidermal melanocytes were co-cultured with human keratinocytes. After cells were treated with botulinum toxin type A, cell morphology, proliferation, and dendricity were analyzed, and immunofluorescence, tyrosinase activity, and melanin contents were determined. To evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin type A on ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin, ultraviolet B alone was applied to one side of the back of each mouse as a control, whereas ultraviolet B plus injection of botulinum toxin type A was applied to the contralateral side. Skin pigmentation, histology, and the number of dihydroxyphenylalanine-positive melanocytes were evaluated. The L* colorimeter value was measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determinations of basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1 alpha, and prostaglandin E2 were performed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining revealed botulinum toxin type A in the cytoplasm of melanocytes and in the positive control. In vitro, melanocyte dendricity and melanin contents were decreased slightly but significantly (p < 0.05) after botulinum toxin type A treatment. In vivo, botulinum toxin type A suppressed skin pigmentation. The number of dihydroxyphenylalanine-positive melanocytes was also significantly lower than in the control side. Tyrosinase activity and melanin content were also significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Botulinum toxin type A also significantly reduced the amounts of basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1 alpha, and prostaglandin E2 (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Botulinum toxin type A can suppress epidermal melanogenesis through both direct and indirect mechanisms.",
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AU - Jung, Jae A.

AU - Kim, Beom Jun

AU - Kim, Min Sook

AU - You, Hi Jin

AU - Yoon, Eul Sik

AU - Dhong, Eun-Sang

AU - Park, Seung Ha

AU - Kim, Deok Woo

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation following ultraviolet irradiation has cosmetic concerns. Botulinum toxin type A can favorably affect skin pigmentation. However, the mechanism of skin pigmentation is unclear. METHODS: In vitro, human epidermal melanocytes were co-cultured with human keratinocytes. After cells were treated with botulinum toxin type A, cell morphology, proliferation, and dendricity were analyzed, and immunofluorescence, tyrosinase activity, and melanin contents were determined. To evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin type A on ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin, ultraviolet B alone was applied to one side of the back of each mouse as a control, whereas ultraviolet B plus injection of botulinum toxin type A was applied to the contralateral side. Skin pigmentation, histology, and the number of dihydroxyphenylalanine-positive melanocytes were evaluated. The L* colorimeter value was measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determinations of basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1 alpha, and prostaglandin E2 were performed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining revealed botulinum toxin type A in the cytoplasm of melanocytes and in the positive control. In vitro, melanocyte dendricity and melanin contents were decreased slightly but significantly (p < 0.05) after botulinum toxin type A treatment. In vivo, botulinum toxin type A suppressed skin pigmentation. The number of dihydroxyphenylalanine-positive melanocytes was also significantly lower than in the control side. Tyrosinase activity and melanin content were also significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Botulinum toxin type A also significantly reduced the amounts of basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1 alpha, and prostaglandin E2 (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Botulinum toxin type A can suppress epidermal melanogenesis through both direct and indirect mechanisms.

AB - BACKGROUND: Hyperpigmentation following ultraviolet irradiation has cosmetic concerns. Botulinum toxin type A can favorably affect skin pigmentation. However, the mechanism of skin pigmentation is unclear. METHODS: In vitro, human epidermal melanocytes were co-cultured with human keratinocytes. After cells were treated with botulinum toxin type A, cell morphology, proliferation, and dendricity were analyzed, and immunofluorescence, tyrosinase activity, and melanin contents were determined. To evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin type A on ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin, ultraviolet B alone was applied to one side of the back of each mouse as a control, whereas ultraviolet B plus injection of botulinum toxin type A was applied to the contralateral side. Skin pigmentation, histology, and the number of dihydroxyphenylalanine-positive melanocytes were evaluated. The L* colorimeter value was measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determinations of basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1 alpha, and prostaglandin E2 were performed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining revealed botulinum toxin type A in the cytoplasm of melanocytes and in the positive control. In vitro, melanocyte dendricity and melanin contents were decreased slightly but significantly (p < 0.05) after botulinum toxin type A treatment. In vivo, botulinum toxin type A suppressed skin pigmentation. The number of dihydroxyphenylalanine-positive melanocytes was also significantly lower than in the control side. Tyrosinase activity and melanin content were also significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Botulinum toxin type A also significantly reduced the amounts of basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-1 alpha, and prostaglandin E2 (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Botulinum toxin type A can suppress epidermal melanogenesis through both direct and indirect mechanisms.

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