Rapid hybrid encoding for high-resolution whole-brain fluid-attenuated imaging

Hoonjae Lee, Chul Ho Sohn, Jaeseok Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Single-slab three-dimensional (3D) turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging combined with inversion recovery (IR), which employs short, spatially non-selective refocusing pulses and signal prescription based variable refocusing flip angles (VFA) to increase imaging efficiency, was recently introduced to produce fluid-attenuated brain images for lesion detection. Despite the advantages, the imaging efficiency in this approach still remains limited because a substantially long time of inversion is needed to selectively suppress the signal intensity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) while fully recovering that of brain tissues. The purpose of this work is to develop a novel, rapid hybrid encoding method for highly efficient whole-brain fluid-attenuated imaging. In each time of repetition, volumetric data are continuously encoded using the hybrid modular acquisition in a sequential fashion even during IR signal transition, wherein reversed fast imaging with steady-state free precession (PSIF) is employed to encode intermediate-to-high spatial frequency signals prior to CSF nulling, while VFA-TSE is used to collect low-to-intermediate spatial frequency signals afterwards. Gradient-induced spin de-phasing between a pair of neighboring radio-frequency (RF) pulses in both PSIF and TSE modules is kept identical to avoid the occurrence of multiple echoes in a single acquisition window. Additionally, a two-step, alternate RF phase-cycling scheme is employed in the low spatial frequency region to eliminate free induction decay induced edge artifacts. Numerical simulations of the Bloch equations were performed to evaluate signal evolution of brain tissues along the echo train while optimizing imaging parameters. In vivo studies demonstrate that the proposed technique produces high-resolution isotropic fluid-attenuated whole-brain images in a clinically acceptable imaging time with substantially high signal-to-noise ratio for white matter while retaining lesion conspicuity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1751-1761
Number of pages11
JournalNMR in Biomedicine
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Dec


  • Fluid attenuated
  • Gradient echo
  • Hybrid encoding
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Turbo spin-echo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy


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