Real-time monitoring of SPT donut hammer motion and SPT energy transfer ratio using digital line-scan camera and pile driving analyzer

Changho Lee, Shinwhan An, Woojin Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)


In order to investigate the effect of standard penetration test (SPT) hammer impact on the energy transfer ratio (ETR) and sampler penetration, the behavior of hammer and anvil is monitored by using a high-speed digital line-scan camera and the stress wave is measured by using a pile driving analyzer during SPTs. By analyzing the motions of the hammer and anvil, which are digitized using the image processing algorithm, two types of secondary impact are observed to exist. Type-I secondary impact is caused by the rapid downward anvil movement at time t1 + 2 L/c and the re-contact of the following hammer on the rebounding anvil. Type-I secondary impact is dominant for N value smaller than 25 and it contributes to the ETR and additional sampler penetration. The time elapsed to type-I secondary impact decreases as N value increases. Type-II secondary impact is induced by the restrike of the pushed-up hammer on the resting anvil. Type-II secondary impact is dominant for N value greater than 50 and it has no influence on the ETR and the sampler penetration. The time elapsed to type-II secondary impact increases with the increase in N value.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalActa Geotechnica
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2013 Feb 13



  • Digital line-scan camera
  • Energy transfer ratio
  • Hammer-anvil motion
  • Secondary impact
  • Standard penetration test (SPT)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

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