Morchella esculenta (M. esculenta) is a delicious edible mushroom prized for its special flavor and strong health promoting abilities. Several bioactive ingredients including polysaccharides, polyphenolic compounds, proteins, and protein hydrolysates all contribute to the biological activities of M. esculenta. Different polysaccharides could be extracted and purified depending on the extraction methods and M. esculenta studied. Monosaccharide composition of M. esculenta polysaccharides (MEP) generally includes mannose, galactose, and glucose, etc. MEP possess multiple bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, hypoglycemic activity, atherosclerosis prevention and antitumor ability. Other components like polyphenols, protein hydrolysates, and several crude extracts are also reported with strong bioactivities. In terms of potential applications of M. esculenta and its metabolites as nutritional supplements and drug supplements, this review aims to comprehensively summarize the structural characteristics, biological activities, research progress, and research trends of the active ingredients produced by M. esculenta. Among the various biological activities, the substances extracted from both natural collected and submerged fermented M. esculenta are promising for antioxidants, immunomodulation, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory applications. However, further researches on the extraction conditions and chemical structure of bioactive compounds produced by M. esculenta still need investigations.
- Morchella esculenta
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Molecular Biology