This study was aimed to investigate the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) on monocyte to macrophage differentiation and inflammatory signalings in THP-1 human monocytes. In HPLC analysis, RGE contained saponin level of 516 μg/mg (extract) with 14 ginsenosides. RGE effectively suppressed the monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetated (PMA) by inhibiting the THP-1 cell adhesion. This result is evidenced by the down-regulation of cluster of differentiation molecule β (CD11β) and CD36. RGE significantly reduced translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) (78%), while cytosolic NF-κB was increased (53%), compared with LPS group. In addition, RGE significantly increased the protein abundance of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and its target protein, hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), but, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), a negative regulator of Nrf2, was greatly decreased by RGE. Furthermore, RGE effectively mediated the regulation of Nrf2 level in nucleus and cytoplasm of THP-1.
- Human monocyte (THP-1)
- Inflammatory signaling
- Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation
- Red ginseng extract (RGE)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology