Reference values for nerve ultrasonography in the upper extremity

Sun Jae Won, Byung Jo Kim, Kyung Seok Park, Joon Shik Yoon, Hyuk Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

93 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: The aims of this study were to identify factors affecting the measurement of nerve cross-sectional area (CSA) and to establish normal reference values for nerve ultrasonography of the upper extremity. Methods: Ninety-seven age-matched, healthy individuals were enrolled. Ultrasonographic tests were performed by tracing nerves from the axilla to the distal arm. CSA was measured at the following locations: median nerve (carpal tunnel inlet, forearm, antecubital fossa, midhumerus); ulnar nerve (wrist, 2 cm proximal to the wrist, forearm, cubital tunnel outlet and inlet, midhumerus); radial nerve (spiral groove, antecubital fossa); and musculocutaneous nerve (proximal humerus). Results: The CSA reference values differed between the measured points along the path of each nerve. Nerve CSA correlated significantly with weight, body mass index, height, and gender; however, the CSA ratio (distal/proximal) did not correlate with demographic factors. Conclusions: The normal reference values may be helpful in diagnosis of pathologies involving these nerves.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)864-871
Number of pages8
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jun


  • Median nerve
  • Musculocutaneous nerve
  • Radial nerve
  • Ulnar nerve
  • Ultrasonography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Physiology (medical)


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