Background and Purpose- With the lack of confirmatory examinations, the distinction of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) from various TIA-mimicking diseases is difficult, particularly in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-negative TIAs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion defects and early ischemic recurrence (FU-DWI [+]) in patients with DWI-negative TIAs. Methods- We assessed consecutive patients with a DWI-negative TIA within 24 hours of symptom onset, who underwent both ASL images and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging during the acute period. As markers of the ASL images, we evaluated the ASL perfusion defects in each hemisphere. Arterial transit artifact (ATA) and intraarterial high-intensity signal (IAS) were also rated as markers of collateral status and blood stagnation due to large vessel occlusion, respectively. Results- Among the 136 patients with a DWI-negative TIA, 33 patients had FU-DWI (+) lesions in 36 hemispheres. In the multivariable analysis, ASL defects remained an independent predictor of FU-DWI (+) (adjusted odds ratio, 13.94 [95% CI, 5.77-33.70], P<0.001). In the evaluation of the interactive relationship between ASL defects and ATA/IAS, the (ASL [+] ATA [-]) group showed the highest frequencies of FU-DWI (+) events (55.6%) with the highest adjusted odds ratio values (adjusted odds ratio, 14.86 [95% CI, 5.63-39.24], P<0.001), indicating a negative synergistic effect between the ASL defects and ATA. Meanwhile, the (ASL [+] IAS [+]) group showed higher frequencies of FU-DWI (+) and higher adjusted odds ratio values than those of the (ASL [+] IAS [-]) and (ASL [-] IAS [-]) groups, indicating a positive synergistic effect. Conclusions- We demonstrated that ASL perfusion defects were associated with ipsilateral FU-DWI (+) in patients with a DWI-negative TIA. Furthermore, this association was enhanced with IASs and attenuated with ATAs.
- magnetic resonance imaging
- transient ischemic attack
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialised Nursing