Regional hydrochemical study on salinization of coastal aquifers, western coastal area of South Korea

Seh Chang Park, Seong Taek Yun, Gi Tak Chae, In Sik Yoo, Kwang Sub Shin, Chul Ho Heo, Sang Kyu Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

113 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In order to evaluate the salinization in the western coastal area of South Korea, we performed a regional hydrochemical study on a total of 356 shallow groundwaters sampled within 10 km from the coastline. About 13, 5, and 37% of the samples exceed the drinking water standards for total dissolved solids, chloride, and nitrate, respectively, indicating significant deterioration and salinization of groundwaters. The concentrations of analyzed solutes are very wide in range, suggesting that the hydrochemistry is controlled by several intermixed processes such as seawater mixing, anthropogenic contamination, and water-rock interaction. Based on the interpretation of cumulative probability curves for Cl- and NO3 - concentrations, groundwaters are grouped into four types, as follows: (1) type 1 waters (37.6%) that are relatively poor in Cl- and NO3 -, which indicates little contamination due to seawater mixing and/or anthropogenic pollution; (2) type 2 waters (2.8%) enriched in Cl-, indicating considerable effects of seawater mixing; (3) NO3 --rich, type 3 waters (58.1%) which show significant anthropogenic pollution; and (4) type 4 waters (1.4%) enriched in both Cl- and NO3 -, demonstrating the effects of both seawater mixing and anthropogenic contamination. The results of water-type classification are well confirmed by statistical analyses of hydrochemical data. As an effective tool for evaluating the relative degree of seawater mixing, we propose the 'Seawater Mixing Index' (SMI) based on the concentrations of Na, Mg, Cl, and SO 4. Most type 2 and type 4 waters have SMI values greater than 1. At least about 5 and 60% of well groundwaters are considered to be affected by salinization due to seawater mixing and anthropogenic contamination, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-194
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Hydrology
Volume313
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Nov 10

Fingerprint

coastal aquifer
South Korea
salinization
aquifers
seawater
groundwater
water
pollution
water salinization
total dissolved solids
hydrochemistry
coastal area
water-rock interaction
drinking water
solutes
solute
chlorides
rocks
deterioration
chloride

Keywords

  • Anthropogenic contamination
  • Coastal groundwater
  • Hydrochemistry
  • Seawater mixing
  • Seawater Mixing Index (SMI)
  • West sea of South Korea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Soil Science
  • Earth-Surface Processes

Cite this

Regional hydrochemical study on salinization of coastal aquifers, western coastal area of South Korea. / Park, Seh Chang; Yun, Seong Taek; Chae, Gi Tak; Yoo, In Sik; Shin, Kwang Sub; Heo, Chul Ho; Lee, Sang Kyu.

In: Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 313, No. 3-4, 10.11.2005, p. 182-194.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Park, Seh Chang ; Yun, Seong Taek ; Chae, Gi Tak ; Yoo, In Sik ; Shin, Kwang Sub ; Heo, Chul Ho ; Lee, Sang Kyu. / Regional hydrochemical study on salinization of coastal aquifers, western coastal area of South Korea. In: Journal of Hydrology. 2005 ; Vol. 313, No. 3-4. pp. 182-194.
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abstract = "In order to evaluate the salinization in the western coastal area of South Korea, we performed a regional hydrochemical study on a total of 356 shallow groundwaters sampled within 10 km from the coastline. About 13, 5, and 37{\%} of the samples exceed the drinking water standards for total dissolved solids, chloride, and nitrate, respectively, indicating significant deterioration and salinization of groundwaters. The concentrations of analyzed solutes are very wide in range, suggesting that the hydrochemistry is controlled by several intermixed processes such as seawater mixing, anthropogenic contamination, and water-rock interaction. Based on the interpretation of cumulative probability curves for Cl- and NO3 - concentrations, groundwaters are grouped into four types, as follows: (1) type 1 waters (37.6{\%}) that are relatively poor in Cl- and NO3 -, which indicates little contamination due to seawater mixing and/or anthropogenic pollution; (2) type 2 waters (2.8{\%}) enriched in Cl-, indicating considerable effects of seawater mixing; (3) NO3 --rich, type 3 waters (58.1{\%}) which show significant anthropogenic pollution; and (4) type 4 waters (1.4{\%}) enriched in both Cl- and NO3 -, demonstrating the effects of both seawater mixing and anthropogenic contamination. The results of water-type classification are well confirmed by statistical analyses of hydrochemical data. As an effective tool for evaluating the relative degree of seawater mixing, we propose the 'Seawater Mixing Index' (SMI) based on the concentrations of Na, Mg, Cl, and SO 4. Most type 2 and type 4 waters have SMI values greater than 1. At least about 5 and 60{\%} of well groundwaters are considered to be affected by salinization due to seawater mixing and anthropogenic contamination, respectively.",
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AU - Park, Seh Chang

AU - Yun, Seong Taek

AU - Chae, Gi Tak

AU - Yoo, In Sik

AU - Shin, Kwang Sub

AU - Heo, Chul Ho

AU - Lee, Sang Kyu

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N2 - In order to evaluate the salinization in the western coastal area of South Korea, we performed a regional hydrochemical study on a total of 356 shallow groundwaters sampled within 10 km from the coastline. About 13, 5, and 37% of the samples exceed the drinking water standards for total dissolved solids, chloride, and nitrate, respectively, indicating significant deterioration and salinization of groundwaters. The concentrations of analyzed solutes are very wide in range, suggesting that the hydrochemistry is controlled by several intermixed processes such as seawater mixing, anthropogenic contamination, and water-rock interaction. Based on the interpretation of cumulative probability curves for Cl- and NO3 - concentrations, groundwaters are grouped into four types, as follows: (1) type 1 waters (37.6%) that are relatively poor in Cl- and NO3 -, which indicates little contamination due to seawater mixing and/or anthropogenic pollution; (2) type 2 waters (2.8%) enriched in Cl-, indicating considerable effects of seawater mixing; (3) NO3 --rich, type 3 waters (58.1%) which show significant anthropogenic pollution; and (4) type 4 waters (1.4%) enriched in both Cl- and NO3 -, demonstrating the effects of both seawater mixing and anthropogenic contamination. The results of water-type classification are well confirmed by statistical analyses of hydrochemical data. As an effective tool for evaluating the relative degree of seawater mixing, we propose the 'Seawater Mixing Index' (SMI) based on the concentrations of Na, Mg, Cl, and SO 4. Most type 2 and type 4 waters have SMI values greater than 1. At least about 5 and 60% of well groundwaters are considered to be affected by salinization due to seawater mixing and anthropogenic contamination, respectively.

AB - In order to evaluate the salinization in the western coastal area of South Korea, we performed a regional hydrochemical study on a total of 356 shallow groundwaters sampled within 10 km from the coastline. About 13, 5, and 37% of the samples exceed the drinking water standards for total dissolved solids, chloride, and nitrate, respectively, indicating significant deterioration and salinization of groundwaters. The concentrations of analyzed solutes are very wide in range, suggesting that the hydrochemistry is controlled by several intermixed processes such as seawater mixing, anthropogenic contamination, and water-rock interaction. Based on the interpretation of cumulative probability curves for Cl- and NO3 - concentrations, groundwaters are grouped into four types, as follows: (1) type 1 waters (37.6%) that are relatively poor in Cl- and NO3 -, which indicates little contamination due to seawater mixing and/or anthropogenic pollution; (2) type 2 waters (2.8%) enriched in Cl-, indicating considerable effects of seawater mixing; (3) NO3 --rich, type 3 waters (58.1%) which show significant anthropogenic pollution; and (4) type 4 waters (1.4%) enriched in both Cl- and NO3 -, demonstrating the effects of both seawater mixing and anthropogenic contamination. The results of water-type classification are well confirmed by statistical analyses of hydrochemical data. As an effective tool for evaluating the relative degree of seawater mixing, we propose the 'Seawater Mixing Index' (SMI) based on the concentrations of Na, Mg, Cl, and SO 4. Most type 2 and type 4 waters have SMI values greater than 1. At least about 5 and 60% of well groundwaters are considered to be affected by salinization due to seawater mixing and anthropogenic contamination, respectively.

KW - Anthropogenic contamination

KW - Coastal groundwater

KW - Hydrochemistry

KW - Seawater mixing

KW - Seawater Mixing Index (SMI)

KW - West sea of South Korea

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