Relationship between articulation paper mark size and percentage of force measured with computerized occlusal analysis

Sarah Qadeer, Robert Kerstein, Ryan Jin Yung Kim, Jung Bo Huh, Sang Wan Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Articulation paper mark size is widely accepted as an indicator of forceful tooth contacts. However, mark size is indicative of contact location and surface area only, and does not quantify occlusal force. The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between the size of paper marks and the percentage of force applied to the same tooth. Materials and methods: Thirty dentate female subjects intercuspated into articulation paper strips to mark occlusal contacts on their maxillary posterior teeth, followed by taking photographs. Then each subject made a multi-bite digital occlusal force percentage recording. The surface area of the largest and darkest articulation paper mark (n = 240 marks) in each quadrant (n = 60 quadrants) was calculated in photographic pixels, and compared with the force percentage present on the same tooth. Results: Regression analysis shows a bi-variant fit of force % on tooth (P<.05). The correlation coefficient between the mark area and the percentage of force indicated a low positive correlation. The coefficient of determination showed a low causative relationship between mark area and force (r2 = 0.067). The largest paper mark in each quadrant was matched with the most forceful tooth in that same quadrant only 38.3% of time. Only 6 2/3% of mark surface area could be explained by applied occlusal force, while most of the mark area results from other factors unrelated to the applied occlusal force. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that size of articulation paper mark is an unreliable indicator of applied occlusal force, to guide treatment occlusal adjustments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-12
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Advanced Prosthodontics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Articulation paper
  • Computerized occlusal analysis system
  • Force percentage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery
  • Dentistry (miscellaneous)


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