Objective To develop and standardize the Limb and Oral Apraxia Test (LOAT) for Korean patients and investigate its reliability, validity, and clinical usefulness for patients with stroke. Methods We developed the LOAT according to a cognitive neuropsychological model of limb and oral praxis. The test included meaningless, intransitive, transitive, and oral praxis composed of 72 items (56 items on limb praxis and 16 items on oral praxis; maximum score 216). We standardized the LOAT in a nationwide sample of 324 healthy adults. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity tests were performed in patients with stroke. We prospectively applied the LOAT in 80 patients and analyzed the incidence of apraxia. We also compared the clinical characteristics between the apraxia and non-apraxia groups. Results The internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha=0.952). The inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and concurrent validity were also high (r=0.924-0.992, 0.961-0.999, and 0.830, respectively; p < 0.001). The mean total, limb, and oral scores were not significantly different according to age and education (p > 0.05). Among the 80 patients with stroke, 19 (23.8%) had limb apraxia and 21 (26.3%) had oral apraxia. Left hemispheric lesions and aphasia were significantly more frequently observed in the limb/oral apraxia group than in the non-apraxia group (p < 0.001). Conclusion The LOAT is a newly developed comprehensive test for limb and oral apraxia for Korean patients with stroke. It has high internal consistency, reliability, and validity and is a useful apraxia test for patients with stroke.
- Cerebral dominance
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