Remote Manipulation of Slidable Nano-Ligand Switch Regulates the Adhesion and Regenerative Polarization of Macrophages

Hyojun Choi, Gunhyu Bae, Chandra Khatua, Sunhong Min, Hee Joon Jung, Na Li, Indong Jun, Hui Wen Liu, Youngkyu Cho, Kyu Hwan Na, Minji Ko, Hongchul Shin, Yoon Hyuck Kim, Seok Chung, Jae-Jun Song, Vinayak P. Dravid, Heemin Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The development of materials capable of varying macroscale ligand distributions can emulate an extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and regulate the adhesion and polarization of macrophages. In this report, negatively charged slidable nano-ligands are assembled and then conjugated to a positively charged substrate via electrostatic interaction. The negatively charged slidable nano-ligands are prepared by coating magnetic nanoparticles with a polymer linker and negatively charged RGD ligand. The nano-ligand sliding is characterized under an external magnetic field, which spatiotemporally alters macroscale ligand density. To the best of knowledge, this is the first demonstration that magnetic maipulation of the macroscale ligand density inhibits inflammatory M1 phenotype but stimulates the adhesion and regenerative M2 phenotype of host macrophages. Furthermore, it is elucidated that the magnetic attraction of the slidable nano-ligand facilitates the assembly of adhesion structures in macrophages, thereby stimulating their regenerative M2 phenotype. The design of ECM-emulating materials that allow remote, spatiotemporal, and reversible controllability of macroscale ligand density provides an appealing strategy in the spatiotemporal regulation of immunomodulatory tissue-regenerative responses to implants in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2001446
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number35
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Aug 1


  • macrophage adhesion
  • macrophage polarization
  • macroscale ligand manipulation
  • reversible ligand sliding
  • slidable nano-ligand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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