Biochar is an emerging low-cost sorbent used for removing trace metals from water. In this study, we evaluated the removal potential of aqueous hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) by biochars produced from soybean (Glycine max L.) and burcucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) residues. The highest Cr(VI) removal from solution occurred at low pH values (pH 2–5), and adsorption decreased approximately tenfold when the pH increased from 2 to 10. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations showed that Cr(VI) species were reduced to trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) at the biochar surface following Cr(VI) adsorption. Linear combination fitting (LCF) of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data indicated that approximately 90% of the total Cr(VI) (962 μM) was reduced to Cr(III). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting results yielded interatomic chromium (Cr–Cr) distances consistent with the formation of Cr(III) precipitates as Cr(OH)3. Trivalent chromium is far less soluble than Cr(VI) and typically precipitates as amorphous Cr(III) solids. Thus, biochars produced by soybean and burcucumber residues are a promising technique for both adsorbing and reductively immobilizing Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.
- Advanced spectroscopic technique
- Black carbon
- Slow pyrolysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal