Remplissage of an Off-track Hill-Sachs Lesion Is Necessary to Restore Biomechanical Glenohumeral Joint Stability in a Bipolar Bone Loss Model

Robert U. Hartzler, Christopher N.H. Bui, Woong K. Jeong, Masaki Akeda, Alex Peterson, Michelle McGarry, Patrick J. Denard, Stephen S. Burkhart, Thay Q. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose To validate the glenoid track concept in a cadaveric bipolar bone loss model and to test whether “on-track” and “off-track” lesions can be stabilized with Bankart repair (BR) with or without Hill-Sachs remplissage (HSR). Methods Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested in a custom apparatus with passive axial rotation and then progressive translational loading (10 to 40 N) at mid-range (60°) and end-range external rotation (90°). Injury conditions included glenoid bone loss of 15% with on-track (15%) and off-track (30%) Hill-Sachs lesions. Repair conditions included BR with HSR and BR without HSR. Results For on-track lesions, engagement occurred with translation testing in one shoulder (12.5%) at end-range rotation. After BR, engagement was prevented for this shoulder. For off-track lesions, engagement with translation testing occurred in 8 shoulders (100%) at end-range rotation and in 6 (75%) at mid-range rotation. After BR, engagement was prevented in 4 of 6 engaging shoulders (67%) at mid-range rotation but was prevented in zero of 8 (0%) at end-range rotation. Adding HSR prevented engagement in all 14 engaging shoulders with off-track lesions (100%). BR with HSR resulted in supraphysiological stiffness for off-track lesions at mid- and end-range rotation (13.3 N/m vs 7.0 N/m and 10.0 N/m vs 5.0 N/m, P =.0002) and for on-track lesions at end-range rotation (10.1 N/m vs 5.0 N/m, P =.0002). Stiffness of BR with HSR was not different from the intact shoulder for on-track lesions at mid-range rotation (7.2 N/m vs 7.0 N/m, P >.99). Conclusions The patterns of engagement of Hill-Sachs lesions with a 15% glenoid defect in this model give support to the glenoid track concept. BR plus remplissage resulted in supraphysiological shoulder stiffness but was necessary to prevent engagement of off-track bipolar bone lesions. Clinical Relevance This biomechanical study provides evidence to aid in surgical decision making by examining the effects of bipolar bone loss and soft-tissue reconstruction on shoulder stability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2466-2476
Number of pages11
JournalArthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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