Renal capsular invasion (RCI) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) are potential prognostic factors of significance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We evaluated the independent prognostic implications of RCI and LVI in localized clear cell RCC based on a large multi-institutional cohort. 6, 849 patients who had undergone radical or partial nephrectomy for RCC were included. Associations between recurrence and RCI or LVI were analyzed by constructing statistical models that combined Cox proportional hazard regression and propensity score matching. To analyze RCI, 2, 733 patients including 603 patients with RCI were enrolled. To analyze LVI, 3, 586 patients including 121 patients with LVI were enrolled. Recurrence was observed in 75 (12.4%) patients with RCI and 134 (6.3%) patients without RCI. In all statistical models, RCI was significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Recurrence was observed 29 (24.0%) patients with LVI and 207 (6.0%) patients without LVI. LVI was significantly associated with an increased risk of recurrence only in non-adjusted univariate models, but not in multivariate adjusted analysis or propensity score matching models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that RCI could be a significant risk factor for localized clear cell RCC recurrence. In contrast to RCI, LVI cannot be an independent prognostic variable.
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