The kidneys play a fundamental role in the long-term control of arterial pressure by regulating sodium balance and extracellular fluid volume. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is at the center of the regulation of hypertension and progressive renal injury. It has gradually become clear that not only systemic RAS, but also intrarenal RAS has specific effects in the pathogenesis and progression of hypertension and renal damage. All of the RAS components are exhibited in the kidney and intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II) is formed by multiple mechanisms. The demonstration of much enhanced levels of Ang II within specific renal compartments points out selective local regulation of Ang II in the kidney, showing that intrarenal Ang II levels are regulated in a way different from circulating Ang II. The importance of the RAS in involving proper nephrogenesis is also well known, and suppression of the RAS during fetal development may play a key role in mediating the structural and physiological changes observed in models of fetal programming of hypertension.
- Blood pressure
- Renin-angiotensin system
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine