Folpet, a fungicide, is utilized even in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The LD50 of folpet in mammals, birds, and fish is relatively high. Recently, several negative effects of folpet on the respiratory system and cornea have been reported. However, there is no study on the negative effects of folpet on maternal–fetus interactions. In the present study, we used porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells and porcine luminal epithelial (pLE) cells to investigate the toxic effects of folpet during implantation. Folpet treatment decreased cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis with cell cycle arrest. In addition, the ERK, JNK, and AKT signal pathways were activated by folpet treatment. Folpet treatment induced calcium overload in pTr and pLE cells mediating antimigratory and antiadhesive effects in both cell lines. Co-treatment with calcium chelates decreased the anti-implantation effect of folpet. Overall, our results demonstrated potential reproductive toxicity of folpet in pig.
- Luminal epithelial cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis