Residual effects of monoammonium phosphate, gypsum and elemental sulfur on cadmium phytoavailability and translocation from soil to wheat in an effluent irrigated field

Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Muhammad Zia ur Rehman, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Asif Naeem, Muhammad Aamer Maqsood, Hinnan Khalid, J�rg Rinklebe, Yong Sik Ok

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Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is one of the major threats to food security. The application of inorganic amendments such as mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP), gypsum and elemental sulfur (S) could alleviate the negative effects of Cd in crops. However, their long-term residual effects on decreasing Cd uptake in latter crops remain unclear. A field that had previously been applied with treatments including control and 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% by weight of each MAP, gypsum and S, and grown with wheat and rice and thereafter wheat in the rotation was selected for this study. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the same field as the third crop without further application of amendments to evaluate the residual effects of the amendments on Cd uptake by wheat. Plants were harvested at maturity and grain, and straw yield along with Cd concentration in soil, straw, and grains was determined. The addition of MAP and gypsum significantly increased wheat growth and yield and decreased Cd accumulation in straw and grains compared to control while the reverse was found in S application. Both MAP and gypsum decreased AB-DTPA extractable Cd in soil while S increased the bioavailable Cd in soil. Both MAP and gypsum increased the Cd immobilization in the soil and S decreased Cd immobilization in a dose-additive manner. We conclude that MAP and gypsum had a significant residual effect on decreasing Cd uptake in wheat. The cost-benefit ratio revealed that gypsum is an effective amendment for decreasing Cd concentration in plants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)515-523
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes



  • Cadmium immobilization
  • Elemental sulfur
  • Field experiment
  • Gypsum
  • Mono-ammonium phosphate
  • Residual effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)

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