Background: Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a heterogeneous disease. We redefined nursing-home- and hospital-associated infections (NHAI) group by revising existing HCAP risk factors. The NHAI group comprised nursing home residents with a poor functional status, or recent (past 90 days) hospitalization or recent (past 180 days) antibiotic therapy. Our aim was to determine whether respiratory microbiota profiles are related to newly defined NHAI group in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. Methods: The 180 endotracheal aspirates (ETAs) from 60 mechanically ventilated ICU patients (NHAI group, n = 24; non-NHAI group, n = 36) were prospectively collected on days 1, 3 and 7 in a university hospital. The bacterial community profiles of the ETAs were explored by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A phylogenetic-tree-based microbiome association test (TMAT), generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), the Wilcoxon test and the reference frame method were used to analyze the association between microbiome abundance and disease phenotype. Results: The relative abundance of the genus Corynebacterium was significantly higher in the pneumonia than in the non-pneumonia group. The microbiome analysis revealed significantly lower α-diversity in the NHAI group than in the non-NHAI group. In the analysis of β-diversity, the structure of the microbiome also differed significantly between the two groups (weighted UniFrac distance, Adonis, p < 0.001). The abundance of Corynebacterium was significantly higher, and the relative abundances of Granulicatella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Veillonella were significantly lower, in the NHAI group than in the non-NHAI group. Conclusions: The microbiota signature of the ETAs distinguished between patients with and without risk factors for NHAI. The lung microbiome may serve as a therapeutic target for NHAI group.
- Mechanical ventilation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)