Reversible watermark using an accurate predictor and sorter based on payload balancing

Sang Ug Kang, Hee Joon Hwang, Hyoung Joong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


A series of reversible watermarking technologies have been proposed to increase embedding capacity and the quality of the watermarked image simultaneously. The major skills include difference expansion, histogram shifting, and optimizing embedding order. In this paper, an accurate predictor is proposed to enhance the difference expansion. An efficient sorter is also suggested to find a more desirable embedding order. The payload is differently distributed into two sub-images, split like a chessboard pattern, for better watermarked image quality. Simulation results of the accurate prediction and sorter based on the payload balancing method yield generally better performance over previous methods. The gap is wide, in particular, in low payload for natural images. The peak signal-to-noise ratio improvement is around 2 dB in low payload ranges.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)410-420
Number of pages11
JournalETRI Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jun


  • Difference expansion.
  • Histogram shifting
  • Image processing
  • Reversible watermarking
  • Security

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Computer Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Reversible watermark using an accurate predictor and sorter based on payload balancing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this