Regarding the risk of recurrence and progression after optimal treatment, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is classified in three groups such as low, intermediate, and high risk. High-risk NMIBC represents those patients at high probability of recurrence and progression. The American Urological Association considers all T1, high-grade Ta, and carcinoma in situ to be high-risk NMIBC, while the National Comprehensive Cancer Network does all T1. Despite intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation, long-term follow-up reports certain portion of T1G3 patients treated with BCG instillation showed 45% rate of recurrence and 17% of progression. Risk factors in high-risk NMIBC have been one of the main issues of research in this field recently. Here, various kinds of risk factors for recurrence and progression of NMIBC are described and discussed.
|Title of host publication||Bladder Cancer|
|Number of pages||13|
|Publication status||Published - 2017 Dec 14|
- Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer
- Risk factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas