Risk Factors for Recurrence and Progression of Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

Jae Young Park

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Regarding the risk of recurrence and progression after optimal treatment, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is classified in three groups such as low, intermediate, and high risk. High-risk NMIBC represents those patients at high probability of recurrence and progression. The American Urological Association considers all T1, high-grade Ta, and carcinoma in situ to be high-risk NMIBC, while the National Comprehensive Cancer Network does all T1. Despite intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation, long-term follow-up reports certain portion of T1G3 patients treated with BCG instillation showed 45% rate of recurrence and 17% of progression. Risk factors in high-risk NMIBC have been one of the main issues of research in this field recently. Here, various kinds of risk factors for recurrence and progression of NMIBC are described and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBladder Cancer
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9780128099407
ISBN (Print)9780128099391
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec 14


  • Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer
  • Progression
  • Recurrence
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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