The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), transforming growth factor beta-induced gene h3 (βig-h3), and chitosan on early bony consolidation in distraction osteogenesis in a dog model. Sixteen dogs were used for this study. The lateral surface of the mandibular body was exposed in the subperiosteal plane and the vertical osteotomy on the mandibular body was extended downward. An external distraction device was applied to the mandibular body, and the mandibular distraction was started 5 days after the operation at a rate of 2 mm/day up to a 10-mm distraction after 5 days. The experimental group was then divided into a control group, a BMP group, a βig-h3 group, and a chitosan group, depending on the type of implantation material used in the distracted area. On the same day after completing the distraction, BMP, βig-h3, or chitosan was implanted into the distracted area. No material was implanted into the distracted area in the control group. After implanting the materials, the distraction device was left in place for 7 weeks to allow for bony consolidation. Four dogs were allocated to each group. Two dogs in each group, a total of eight dogs, were killed 4 weeks after completing the distraction and the other eight dogs were killed after 7 weeks. Serial radiographs were obtained every week after completing the distraction. New bone was generated in the distracted zone in all groups. In the BMP group, the formation of active woven bone was observed throughout the distracted zone, and the new bone appeared to be nearly normal cortical bone 7 weeks after implantation. In the βig-h3 and chitosan groups, the development of new bone was observed in the distracted zone after 7 weeks; however, the amount was less than that in the BMP group. In the control group, the new bone was observed at the edges of the distracted zone. These findings suggest that BMP seems to be very effective in early bony consolidation in distraction osteogenesis.
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