Heckman's sample selection model is used to examine the role of education on household purchase decisions and expenditures of tobacco products in Malaysia. Results of the marginal effects of education, segmented by ethnic and gender groups, suggest that education decreases the probability, conditional levels and unconditional levels of tobacco expenditures amongst Malaysian households. Specifically, an additional year of education of the household head, irrespective of ethnic or gender considerations, decreases smoking probability by 1.5.percent. However, the negative effect of education seems to be higher for Chinese (US$1.07) than Malay (US$0.26) households in terms of conditional expenditures. Furthermore, education significantly decreases conditional tobacco expenditures within male-headed households.
- Purchase decisions
- Sample selection model
- Tobacco expenditures
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geography, Planning and Development