We investigate the enhancement mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) of alkali metal based n-doped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The dual role of the n-dopant (carrier transport and lowering of the injection barrier) induces a trade-off. When the electron transport layer (ETL) is optimally doped by the n-dopant for the highest conductivity, the amount of n-dopant at the ETL/cathode interface is insufficient to form enough chemical bonds with the cathode for efficient carrier injection. This insufficient amount of n-dopant limits the carrier injection properties. To solve this problem, we demonstrated that the addition of an electron injection layer (EIL) comprised of the n-dopant could increase its presence at the interface and, thereby, improve the carrier injection properties and, consequently, the EL efficiency. Moreover, simply using an alkali-metal alloy (rather than co-deposition) on the n-doped ETL as a cathode, instead of using the additional EIL, greatly improves the EL efficiency of the OLEDs. The alkali-metal alloy cathode increased the interfaced states at the ETL/cathode. The proposed model was confirmed by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy experiments on the alkali-metal n-dopant/electrode interface.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)