Scaling-Up of Industrial Symbiosis in the Korean National Eco-Industrial Park Program: Examining Its Evolution over the 10 Years between 2005–2014

Joo Young Park, Jun Mo Park, Hung Suck Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)


In 2005, South Korea initiated the 15-year National Eco-Industrial Park Development Program in three stages to gradually transform aged industrial complexes into eco-industrial parks (EIPs) by promoting industrial symbiosis (IS). Building upon the pilot experiences from the first 5 years, the second phase of the program focused on the scaling-up of IS at a broader regional level. Key scaling-up strategies included the expansion of target areas by connecting multiple industrial complexes, the standardization of processes and dissemination of learning, and the development of large-scale projects that could contribute to the regional development. In this study, we examined the evolution of IS over the last 10 years between 2005 and 2014, primarily to understand the characteristics and impact of these scaling-up strategies. Our findings showed that the scale of IS in the second phase had increased in various aspects in comparison to that in the first phase. The number of operating projects had increased from 52 to 159, the number of participating firms increased from 90 to 596, and the average distance of IS increased from 40 to 48 kilometers. The size of economic and environmental benefits also increased along with an increase in the private investment and government research funding. We further analyzed the role of the regional EIP centers as facilitators, how their activities influenced the scaling-up of IS, and discussed the characteristics of the Korea's approach to IS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-207
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Industrial Ecology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Feb 1
Externally publishedYes



  • eco-industrial park (EIP)
  • facilitation
  • industrial ecology
  • industrial symbiosis
  • scaling-up
  • South Korea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Social Sciences(all)

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