Self-rated health assessed by web versus mail modes in a mixed mode survey: The digital divide effect and the genuine survey mode effect

Jae-Mahn Shim, Eunjung Shin, Timothy P. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in self-rated health (SRH) between web and mail questionnaires in a mixed mode survey and to provide a model that explains those differences. SUBJECTS: A total of 15,200 mail respondents and 17,829 web respondents from the 2008 US National Health Survey conducted by the Gallup Panel. RESEARCH DESIGN: Respondents were recruited using random digit dialing and assigned to one of the two survey modes (web or mail). Respondents with household Internet connection and frequent Internet usage were invited to complete the survey through the web mode. Respondents who had no Internet connection or who used the Internet infrequently were invited to the mail mode. Thus, respondents with better Internet access used the web mode. MEASURES: Respondents completed a questionnaire that asked about SRH status, objective health conditions, health behaviors, and other socioeconomic variables. Statistical associations were analyzed with ordered Logit and negative binomial models. RESULTS: Web respondents reported better SRH than mail respondents. This difference is in part reflective of variability in objective health status between these two groups, and in part attributable to the effects of survey mode. These results maintained with age controlled. CONCLUSIONS: The alignment between survey mode selection, Internet access, and health disparities, as well as genuine survey mode characteristics, leads to web-mail differences in SRH. Unless the digital divide and its influences on survey mode selection are resolved and differential genuine mode effects are fully comprehended, we recommend that both modes be simultaneously used on a complementary basis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)774-781
Number of pages8
JournalMedical Care
Volume51
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Sep 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Postal Service
Health
Internet
Surveys and Questionnaires
Digital Divide
Health Status
Health Behavior
Statistical Models
Health Surveys

Keywords

  • Digital divide
  • Mail survey
  • Self-rated health
  • Survey mode effects
  • Web survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Self-rated health assessed by web versus mail modes in a mixed mode survey : The digital divide effect and the genuine survey mode effect. / Shim, Jae-Mahn; Shin, Eunjung; Johnson, Timothy P.

In: Medical Care, Vol. 51, No. 9, 01.09.2013, p. 774-781.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{0fa7f3a415b646d8a939fbec0d3ec2d0,
title = "Self-rated health assessed by web versus mail modes in a mixed mode survey: The digital divide effect and the genuine survey mode effect",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in self-rated health (SRH) between web and mail questionnaires in a mixed mode survey and to provide a model that explains those differences. SUBJECTS: A total of 15,200 mail respondents and 17,829 web respondents from the 2008 US National Health Survey conducted by the Gallup Panel. RESEARCH DESIGN: Respondents were recruited using random digit dialing and assigned to one of the two survey modes (web or mail). Respondents with household Internet connection and frequent Internet usage were invited to complete the survey through the web mode. Respondents who had no Internet connection or who used the Internet infrequently were invited to the mail mode. Thus, respondents with better Internet access used the web mode. MEASURES: Respondents completed a questionnaire that asked about SRH status, objective health conditions, health behaviors, and other socioeconomic variables. Statistical associations were analyzed with ordered Logit and negative binomial models. RESULTS: Web respondents reported better SRH than mail respondents. This difference is in part reflective of variability in objective health status between these two groups, and in part attributable to the effects of survey mode. These results maintained with age controlled. CONCLUSIONS: The alignment between survey mode selection, Internet access, and health disparities, as well as genuine survey mode characteristics, leads to web-mail differences in SRH. Unless the digital divide and its influences on survey mode selection are resolved and differential genuine mode effects are fully comprehended, we recommend that both modes be simultaneously used on a complementary basis.",
keywords = "Digital divide, Mail survey, Self-rated health, Survey mode effects, Web survey",
author = "Jae-Mahn Shim and Eunjung Shin and Johnson, {Timothy P.}",
year = "2013",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1097/MLR.0b013e31829a4f92",
language = "English",
volume = "51",
pages = "774--781",
journal = "Medical Care",
issn = "0025-7079",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Self-rated health assessed by web versus mail modes in a mixed mode survey

T2 - The digital divide effect and the genuine survey mode effect

AU - Shim, Jae-Mahn

AU - Shin, Eunjung

AU - Johnson, Timothy P.

PY - 2013/9/1

Y1 - 2013/9/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in self-rated health (SRH) between web and mail questionnaires in a mixed mode survey and to provide a model that explains those differences. SUBJECTS: A total of 15,200 mail respondents and 17,829 web respondents from the 2008 US National Health Survey conducted by the Gallup Panel. RESEARCH DESIGN: Respondents were recruited using random digit dialing and assigned to one of the two survey modes (web or mail). Respondents with household Internet connection and frequent Internet usage were invited to complete the survey through the web mode. Respondents who had no Internet connection or who used the Internet infrequently were invited to the mail mode. Thus, respondents with better Internet access used the web mode. MEASURES: Respondents completed a questionnaire that asked about SRH status, objective health conditions, health behaviors, and other socioeconomic variables. Statistical associations were analyzed with ordered Logit and negative binomial models. RESULTS: Web respondents reported better SRH than mail respondents. This difference is in part reflective of variability in objective health status between these two groups, and in part attributable to the effects of survey mode. These results maintained with age controlled. CONCLUSIONS: The alignment between survey mode selection, Internet access, and health disparities, as well as genuine survey mode characteristics, leads to web-mail differences in SRH. Unless the digital divide and its influences on survey mode selection are resolved and differential genuine mode effects are fully comprehended, we recommend that both modes be simultaneously used on a complementary basis.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in self-rated health (SRH) between web and mail questionnaires in a mixed mode survey and to provide a model that explains those differences. SUBJECTS: A total of 15,200 mail respondents and 17,829 web respondents from the 2008 US National Health Survey conducted by the Gallup Panel. RESEARCH DESIGN: Respondents were recruited using random digit dialing and assigned to one of the two survey modes (web or mail). Respondents with household Internet connection and frequent Internet usage were invited to complete the survey through the web mode. Respondents who had no Internet connection or who used the Internet infrequently were invited to the mail mode. Thus, respondents with better Internet access used the web mode. MEASURES: Respondents completed a questionnaire that asked about SRH status, objective health conditions, health behaviors, and other socioeconomic variables. Statistical associations were analyzed with ordered Logit and negative binomial models. RESULTS: Web respondents reported better SRH than mail respondents. This difference is in part reflective of variability in objective health status between these two groups, and in part attributable to the effects of survey mode. These results maintained with age controlled. CONCLUSIONS: The alignment between survey mode selection, Internet access, and health disparities, as well as genuine survey mode characteristics, leads to web-mail differences in SRH. Unless the digital divide and its influences on survey mode selection are resolved and differential genuine mode effects are fully comprehended, we recommend that both modes be simultaneously used on a complementary basis.

KW - Digital divide

KW - Mail survey

KW - Self-rated health

KW - Survey mode effects

KW - Web survey

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84883226855&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84883226855&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/MLR.0b013e31829a4f92

DO - 10.1097/MLR.0b013e31829a4f92

M3 - Article

C2 - 23774510

AN - SCOPUS:84883226855

VL - 51

SP - 774

EP - 781

JO - Medical Care

JF - Medical Care

SN - 0025-7079

IS - 9

ER -