Self-reported eating speed in relation to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults

Saehyun Lee, Byung Joon Ko, Younghoon Gong, Kyungdo Han, Anna Lee, Byoung Duck Han, Yeo Joon Yoon, Siyoung Park, Jung Hyun Kim, Christos S. Mantzoros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), known to be related to insulin resistance, has been the focus of intensive research efforts due to its increasing prevalence and clinical significance. Rapid eating behavior is another emerging health issue associated with insulin resistance. We aimed to clarify the correlation between self-reported eating speed and NAFLD, both known to be related to insulin resistance. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during routine medical checkups on 7,917 consecutively enrolled participants. Anthropometric, biochemical, nutritional, and social parameters were checked. The self-reported eating speed per their usual meal (<5, 5–10, 10–15, and more than 15 min) was recorded by a registered dietitian. Results: The faster eating groups had a higher proportion of NAFLD, and the grade of NAFLD was advanced. After controlling for anthropometric, cardiometabolic, social, and nutritional parameters, the fastest eating group (<5 min) showed an increased risk of NAFLD compared with the lowest eating speed group (≥15 min) both in total [odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.24–2.63] and the participants with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.22–2.61). As the self-reported eating speed increased, the risk of NAFLD also increased in total and those with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (P for trend <0.001). Conclusions: Fast eating is associated with an increased risk of the presence and grade of NAFLD in Korean adults, especially those with BMI < 25 kg/m2, since presence of overweight or obesity may be overwhelming the effect on NAFLD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-333
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Feb 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Eating behavior
  • Insulin resistance
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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