Background and Aims: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is a small secretory glycoprotein with multifunctional activity including anti-apoptosis and the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase in invasive breast carcinomas. There have been contradictory results as to whether TIMP-1 is a poor or good prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. To address this controversy, we conducted a meta-analysis for the relationship between TIMP-1 levels and prognostic parameters in the breast cancer. Methods: The relevant published studies were pooled according to the defined selection criteria. The effect sizes of overall survival and prognostic parameters were calculated by a hazard ratio (HR) or an odds ratio (OR). HRs or ORs were combined using a random-effects model. Results: Survival outcomes between high or elevated and low or normal serum TIMP-1 levels were compared by uni- and multivariate analyses involving 886 and 844 breast cancer patients, respectively. Patients with high or elevated serum TIMP-1 levels had unfavorable survival outcomes compared to patients with low or normal serum TIMP-1 levels in the uni- and multivariate analyses (HR, 1.7 and 2.4; p <0.001 and p = 0.033, respectively). However, no survival difference was evident in the data from tissue TIMP-1 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the expression of tissue TIMP-1 mRNA. The high or positive immunohistochemical expression of tissue TIMP-1 protein was not related to adjusted and unadjusted HRs, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stages. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates that serum TIMP-1 levels may be useful for predicting survival outcomes of invasive breast cancer patients.
- Breast cancer
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