Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term efficacy and safety of Poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and the immunologic changes in patients with CIN 1. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups and orally treated with placebo or 1,500 mg of γ-PGA for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint of the study was histologic regression rate of CIN 1 at 12 weeks between γ-PGA and control groups. The secondary endpoints were HPV clearance and change in immune responses. Result From April 2013 to December 2015, 195 patients participated in the study. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 42 (42.4%) of the women who received γ-PGA experienced histologic remission versus 26 (27.1%) in the control group, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.018). In the γ-PGA group, HPV clearance was found in 37 (43.5%) of 85 patients infected with high-risk HPV, showing a significant difference compared to the control group, in which 20 (26.7%) of 75 patients exhibited HPV clearance (p = 0.026). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the change of NK cell activity, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II CD8 count, and CD56 count. Conclusion γ-PGA showed a short-term therapeutic effect on CIN 1 and high-risk HPV infection. It is a non-invasive, promising oral medication for women with these conditions.
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