Plants integrate day length and ambient temperature to determine the optimal timing for developmental transitions. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its closest homolog TWIN SISTER OF FT promote flowering in response to their activator CONSTANS under long-day inductive conditions. Low ambient temperature (16°C) delays flowering, even under inductive photoperiods, through repression of FT, revealing the importance of floral repressors acting at low temperatures. Previously, we have reported that the floral repressors TEMPRANILLO (TEM; TEM1 and TEM2) control flowering time through direct regulation of FT at 22°C. Here, we show that tem mutants are less sensitive than the wild type to changes in ambient growth temperature, indicating that TEM genes may play a role in floral repression at 16°C. Moreover, we have found that TEM2 directly represses the expression of FT and TWIN SISTER OF FT at 16°C. In addition, the floral repressor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) directly regulates TEM2 but not TEM1 expression at 16°C. Flowering time analyses of svp tem mutants indicate that TEM may act in the same genetic pathway as SVP to repress flowering at 22°C but that SVP and TEM are partially independent at 16°C. Thus, TEM2 partially mediates the temperature-dependent function of SVP at low temperatures. Taken together, our results indicate that TEM genes are also able to repress flowering at low ambient temperatures under inductive long-day conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Plant Science