Silver materials have been widely used in diverse fields. However, their toxicity and their mechanism, especially in different forms, have not been studied sufficiently. Thus, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1b) production were investigated using macrophage-like THP-1 cells in the presence of Ag microparticles (AgMPs, 2.7 mm), Ag submicroparticles (AgSMPs, 150 nm), and Ag wires (AgWs, 274 nm65.3 mm). The levels of cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and IL-1b production by AgWs were higher than those by the other two AgSMPs and AgMPs. This trend was also observed with each step of the signaling mechanism for IL-1b production, which is a single pathway affiliated with ROS generation or lysosomal rupture or both, cathepsin B, caspase-1 (NALP3 inflammasome), and finally IL-1b production in THP-1 cells. All these results suggest that, for development of safe and effective silver materials, the shape or form of silver materials should be considered, especially for macrophage cell lines because epithelial cell lines are not overly sensitive to silver materials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)