Smart surfaces in nature have been extensively studied to identify their hierarchical structures in micro-/nanoscale to elucidate their superhydrophobicity with varying water adhesion. However, mimicking hybrid features in multiscale requires complex, multi-step processes. Here, we proposed a one-step process for the fabrication of hierarchical structures composed in micro-/nanoscales for superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable water adhesion. Hierarchical patterns were fabricated using a plasma-based selective etching process assisted by a dual scale etching mask. As the metallic mesh is placed above the substrate, it serves the role of dual scale etching masks on the substrate: microscale masks to form the micro-wall network and nanoscale masks to form high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. The micro-walls and nanostructures can be selectively hybridized by adjusting the gap distance between the mesh and the target surface: single nanostructures on a large area for a larger gap distance and hybrid/hierarchical structures with nanostructures nested on micro-walls for a shorter gap distance. The hierarchically nanostructured surface shows superhydrophobicity with low water adhesion, while the hybrid structured surface becomes become superhydrophobic with high adhesion. These water adhesion tunable surfaces were explored for water transport and evaporation. Additionally, we demonstrated a robust superhydrophobic surface with anti-reflectance over a large area.
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