Site-specific ecological risk assessment of metal-contaminated soils based on the TRIAD approach

Dokyung Kim, Jin Il Kwak, Wonjae Hwang, Yong ho Lee, Yun Sik Lee, Ji In Kim, Sunhee Hong, Seunghun Hyun, Youn Joo An

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ecological risk assessment based on scientific data is crucial for understanding causal relationships between chemical pollution and environmental risks. Simultaneously, a balance is required between socioeconomic factors and scientific evidence. The TRIAD approach, which incorporates three lines of evidence (LoE)—chemical (Chem-LoE), ecotoxicological (Ecotox-LoE), and ecological (Eco-LoE)—was applied in five sites of an abandoned mine for site-specific soil ecological risk assessment (SERA). In combination, the three LoEs showed that two sites had extremely high risks, one site had moderate risk, and the other site had low risk. At all sites, Chem-LoE exhibited high-integrated risk values. In Ecotox-LoE and Eco-LoE, some species were not affected despite high metal concentrations in the soil samples collected from the sites, indicating that the bioavailability of metals differed according to the physiochemical properties of the soil medium. This study is significant as multiple analyses were performed considering ecosystem structure to reduce uncertainty in SERA. The results provide information to support effective decision-making risk management to protect the soil ecosystem. Moreover, these findings will be useful in establishing policies and priorities for soil risk management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number128883
JournalJournal of hazardous materials
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul 15


  • Chemical line of evidence
  • Ecological line of evidence
  • Ecotoxicological line of evidence
  • Hazardous materials
  • Integrated risk

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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