Slow injection of nefopam reduces pain intensity associated with intravenous injection

A prospective randomized trial

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of pain associated with intravenous injection of nefopam and to determine whether a slow rate of administration can effectively reduce such pain. Methods: We used a solution containing 30 mg nefopam diluted to 20 ml in saline. In all, 102 adult patients undergoing minor surgery were randomly allocated to one of three administration groups: A (60 ml/h, n = 34); B (120 ml/h, n = 34); or C (180 ml/h, n = 34). All patients scored the maximal pain experienced during the 120-s infusion period, using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the verbal pain score (VPS). Adverse events including phlebitis were recorded. Results: Eighty-three patients (29 in group A, 27 each in groups B and C) were included in the final analysis. The incidence of injection pain was lower in group A (86.2 %) than in groups B (96.3 %) and C (100 %), but this difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of patients with a tolerable level of pain (VAS 0-3 and VPS 0-1) was significantly higher in group A (79.3 %) versus groups B (7.4 %) and C (3.7 %). The mean VAS scores for groups A, B, and C were 2.2 ± 1.3, 5.1 ± 1.6, and 7.2 ± 1.7, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: At the slower rate of infusion (60 ml/h) of the 1.5 mg/ml nefopam solution, injection pain intensity was attenuated to a significantly greater degree than at the faster rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-406
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Anesthesia
Volume28
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jan 1

Fingerprint

Nefopam
Intravenous Injections
Pain
Injections
Pain Measurement
Minor Surgical Procedures
Phlebitis
Visual Analog Scale
Incidence

Keywords

  • Injection pain
  • Intravenous injections
  • Nefopam
  • Visual analogue pain scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

@article{26c507a4e8b547a2b189b371cc3e9d24,
title = "Slow injection of nefopam reduces pain intensity associated with intravenous injection: A prospective randomized trial",
abstract = "Purpose: We aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of pain associated with intravenous injection of nefopam and to determine whether a slow rate of administration can effectively reduce such pain. Methods: We used a solution containing 30 mg nefopam diluted to 20 ml in saline. In all, 102 adult patients undergoing minor surgery were randomly allocated to one of three administration groups: A (60 ml/h, n = 34); B (120 ml/h, n = 34); or C (180 ml/h, n = 34). All patients scored the maximal pain experienced during the 120-s infusion period, using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the verbal pain score (VPS). Adverse events including phlebitis were recorded. Results: Eighty-three patients (29 in group A, 27 each in groups B and C) were included in the final analysis. The incidence of injection pain was lower in group A (86.2 {\%}) than in groups B (96.3 {\%}) and C (100 {\%}), but this difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of patients with a tolerable level of pain (VAS 0-3 and VPS 0-1) was significantly higher in group A (79.3 {\%}) versus groups B (7.4 {\%}) and C (3.7 {\%}). The mean VAS scores for groups A, B, and C were 2.2 ± 1.3, 5.1 ± 1.6, and 7.2 ± 1.7, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: At the slower rate of infusion (60 ml/h) of the 1.5 mg/ml nefopam solution, injection pain intensity was attenuated to a significantly greater degree than at the faster rates.",
keywords = "Injection pain, Intravenous injections, Nefopam, Visual analogue pain scale",
author = "Kim, {Young Min} and Lim, {Byung Gun} and Heezoo Kim and Myounghoon Kong and Lee, {Mi Kyoung} and Lee, {Il Ok}",
year = "2014",
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doi = "10.1007/s00540-013-1744-z",
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pages = "399--406",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Slow injection of nefopam reduces pain intensity associated with intravenous injection

T2 - A prospective randomized trial

AU - Kim, Young Min

AU - Lim, Byung Gun

AU - Kim, Heezoo

AU - Kong, Myounghoon

AU - Lee, Mi Kyoung

AU - Lee, Il Ok

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - Purpose: We aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of pain associated with intravenous injection of nefopam and to determine whether a slow rate of administration can effectively reduce such pain. Methods: We used a solution containing 30 mg nefopam diluted to 20 ml in saline. In all, 102 adult patients undergoing minor surgery were randomly allocated to one of three administration groups: A (60 ml/h, n = 34); B (120 ml/h, n = 34); or C (180 ml/h, n = 34). All patients scored the maximal pain experienced during the 120-s infusion period, using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the verbal pain score (VPS). Adverse events including phlebitis were recorded. Results: Eighty-three patients (29 in group A, 27 each in groups B and C) were included in the final analysis. The incidence of injection pain was lower in group A (86.2 %) than in groups B (96.3 %) and C (100 %), but this difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of patients with a tolerable level of pain (VAS 0-3 and VPS 0-1) was significantly higher in group A (79.3 %) versus groups B (7.4 %) and C (3.7 %). The mean VAS scores for groups A, B, and C were 2.2 ± 1.3, 5.1 ± 1.6, and 7.2 ± 1.7, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: At the slower rate of infusion (60 ml/h) of the 1.5 mg/ml nefopam solution, injection pain intensity was attenuated to a significantly greater degree than at the faster rates.

AB - Purpose: We aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of pain associated with intravenous injection of nefopam and to determine whether a slow rate of administration can effectively reduce such pain. Methods: We used a solution containing 30 mg nefopam diluted to 20 ml in saline. In all, 102 adult patients undergoing minor surgery were randomly allocated to one of three administration groups: A (60 ml/h, n = 34); B (120 ml/h, n = 34); or C (180 ml/h, n = 34). All patients scored the maximal pain experienced during the 120-s infusion period, using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the verbal pain score (VPS). Adverse events including phlebitis were recorded. Results: Eighty-three patients (29 in group A, 27 each in groups B and C) were included in the final analysis. The incidence of injection pain was lower in group A (86.2 %) than in groups B (96.3 %) and C (100 %), but this difference was not statistically significant. The proportion of patients with a tolerable level of pain (VAS 0-3 and VPS 0-1) was significantly higher in group A (79.3 %) versus groups B (7.4 %) and C (3.7 %). The mean VAS scores for groups A, B, and C were 2.2 ± 1.3, 5.1 ± 1.6, and 7.2 ± 1.7, respectively, and these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: At the slower rate of infusion (60 ml/h) of the 1.5 mg/ml nefopam solution, injection pain intensity was attenuated to a significantly greater degree than at the faster rates.

KW - Injection pain

KW - Intravenous injections

KW - Nefopam

KW - Visual analogue pain scale

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U2 - 10.1007/s00540-013-1744-z

DO - 10.1007/s00540-013-1744-z

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VL - 28

SP - 399

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JO - Journal of Anesthesia

JF - Journal of Anesthesia

SN - 0913-8668

IS - 3

ER -