SNR-optimized phase-sensitive dual-acquisition turbo spin echo imaging: A fast alternative to FLAIR

Hyunyeol Lee, Jaeseok Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


Phase-sensitive dual-acquisition single-slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo imaging was recently introduced, producing high-resolution isotropic cerebrospinal fluid attenuated brain images without long inversion recovery preparation. Despite the advantages, the weighted-averaging-based technique suffers from noise amplification resulting from different levels of cerebrospinal fluid signal modulations over the two acquisitions. The purpose of this work is to develop a signal-to-noise ratio-optimized version of the phase-sensitive dual-acquisition single-slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo. Variable refocusing flip angles in the first acquisition are calculated using a three-step prescribed signal evolution while those in the second acquisition are calculated using a two-step pseudo-steady state signal transition with a high flip-angle pseudo-steady state at a later portion of the echo train, balancing the levels of cerebrospinal fluid signals in both the acquisitions. Low spatial frequency signals are sampled during the high flip-angle pseudo-steady state to further suppress noise. Numerical simulations of the Bloch equations were performed to evaluate signal evolutions of brain tissues along the echo train and optimize imaging parameters. In vivo studies demonstrate that compared with conventional phase-sensitive dual-acquisition single-slab three-dimensional turbo spin echo, the proposed optimization yields 74% increase in apparent signal-to-noise ratio for gray matter and 32% decrease in imaging time. The proposed method can be a potential alternative to conventional fluid-attenuated imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-116
Number of pages11
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jul 1



  • fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, three-dimensional
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • phase-sensitive
  • spin echo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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